Outside of the main communities across the region, there are more than 50 Yolŋu homelands. These are small communities established through the homelands movement of the 1970s when kinship groups left mission communities to return to their traditional lands. Homelands represent the vision of Yolŋu leaders to determine their future.
Homelands range in population from less than 10 people through to over 100 people. Homelands have basic essential and municipal services delivered through homelands service providers, as well as community housing. Access is generally by road and most homelands have airstrips for charter plane access.
Homelands leaders and residents are particularly entrepreneurial and there are a range of successful businesses already operating across the region. Homelands welcome economic development, including through partnerships, as an important means of supporting employment and connection to country for future generations.